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Effect of Anti-Retroviral Treatment on Tooth Size of First Premolars in Children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
1Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, The Oxford Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bommanahalli, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Journal of Pediatric Dentistry 2015; 3(2): 57-60 DOI: 10.4103/2321-6646.155564
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Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receive anti-retroviral therapy (ART) quite early in life. These drugs could possibly have an effect on tooth development. A group of 221 HIV-infected children in the age group of 6-18 years (mean 11.62 ± 3.30 years) were examined for any tooth anomalies. Only 109 children were on ART and they were divided into three groups based on the anti-retroviral regimen they received. Twenty percent of children on ART had microdontia of the first premolars, with a mean age of drug onset 3.2 ± 0.8 years. Type of anti-retroviral regimen and age of administration appears to have an effect on developing teeth. There is a need for further research on the possible effects of anti-retroviral medications on tooth mineralization.